As we have suggested throughout, they are usually more basic and therefore more important for lower-level students. Repeat the process one more time, and then pair the pairs and get them to compare their texts. If they hear particular words, but not others, can they be sure the ones they heard were the key ones? Trying to talk about the strategies and sub-skills they employ might seem to be a good idea but may actually not move us any further forward. What is probably more effective is using activities where it is impossible to get every word and yet the activity is doable. In this way, you rely more on top-down processing to make up for unreliability in the sound signal, which forms an obstacle to bottom-up processing.
He recently posted his book Teach and Learn: Reflections on Communicative Language Teaching on Kindle. For instance, students are expected to answer the following questions after they listen to a passage. See also: Further links: Tags. A Calgary-based writer, author and historian, during the last two decades Peter McKenzie-Brown has done work for several corporate clients and also for industry and business publications — notably the trade magazines Oilweek and Oilsands Review. The head of employee communications in the region did conference calls and face to face meetings to ensure that every part of the bank participated. However, as we will see later on in this article, it is quite difficult to separate the two when it comes to actually analyzing the strategies we have used on any one particular listening text.
The second point is that trying to help students become as proficient at listening in English as they are in their L1 is probably futile. Some language teachers are too quick to jump on the top-down bandwagon. Conclusion Top-down processing is very important in listening comprehension. Top-down listening Top-down listening means making as much use as you can of your knowledge and the situation. While numbers are being taught we therefore need to focus on these problems. Activating prior knowledge is crucial in top-down processing. Sometimes, jotting down a few words and phrases will hold you accountable and help you put what you have heard into context with what you already know.
If we use a certain textbook, in which questions always follow a passage, we may ask the students to read the questions first. From these blocks we build comprehension. As you can see, they tend to be phonological 3 , and I would argue that it is in focusing systematically on phonology during the course that we can best teach bottom-up processing skills. If you want to take the activity on to the productive level, the roles are then reversed — a student says a word and the teacher identifies it. Even though you have a lot of prior knowledge, make sure you are maintaining eye contact with the speaker and reeling yourself back in if you find yourself getting distracted. That was really out of my expectation because she was not very strong in listening comprehension. The lady student who did well reported that she had read an article on how to advertise for a famous brand of shirt.
While the students make the list, they can use the words and phrases they have already known, or they can ask their partners to help. The position no longer exists. Students can be divided into several groups to discuss the topic. In Mexico where the bank is obviously going through a rough time, 73% of staff have had an Exchange meeting where they could have their say on anything from the quality of the coffee to dealing with the fall-out from the past money-laundering and other regulatory breaches. Top-down teaching is concerned with motivating students to learn through direct interaction and immersion, and allowing them to find meaning in a subject by applying their own experiences. Students make meaning of a text by building on a foundation of analyzing the smallest units of meaning. Traditional dictation went out of vogue for some time after the development of the communicative approach, and when it was brought back 5 tended to be top-down rather than bottom-up as in the traditional variety.
The list making activity is very good for pair or group work. Even teams scattered around the globe do Exchanges over telephone conferences. Jot Some Notes This is a good exercise for students who tend to be quiet or introverted. Top-down listening uses background knowledge and contextualizes words to aid comprehension. However, this method may not be very appropriate for opinion-giving text or fiction.
Gap-fill Take a listening text and remove some of the words. Bottom-up listening uses sounds, words, and other small units to create meaning. You will hear two people talking about their plans for the weekend. An interactive approach to reading combines elements of both bottom-up and top-down reading processes simultaneously. Conversely, context, inferences, and world knowledge top-down processes can influence lower-level processing strategies, affecting readers' expectations about words and meanings and thus helping readers recognize words faster top to bottom. If you want, you can give a bit more information — e. A phonics approach to teaching reading supports bottom-up processes.
Just two examples : a again at beginner level, students may have difficulty recognising the the difference between is and was, especially if the preceding pronoun is also weakened. It requires coaching and face to face. Looking at Pictures Before Listening I have used this many times with younger learners because they are good at reading pictures. Later it was further developed as a measure of prior knowledge. And they were talking about them when on the way to work, with their friends, in the corridors, just before meetings. Top down listening starts from the meaning and works backwards.