A culture normally describes a method of concepts, outlook, beliefs and language, which examines the way of life of a specific group of people with similar interests. The battle continues in this way until the participants have switched sides and have had an opportunity to both help and ridicule the opposition. In the Congo Free State, and during Belgian colonialism, the villagers were forced to collect wild rubber, or to labor in mines and on road construction. Imagine how the forest must have been an awe inspiring beautiful green picturesque setting. They see the forest clearings to be cavernous, their houses are sphere shaped, and their concept of space is also spherical. The impact of their society type on kinship, social organization, political organization, economic organization, and their beliefs and rituals will be examined as well.
The ecological basis of hunter-gatherer subsistence in the Ituri forest of Zaire. The exchange relationship between Mbuti and villagers has been flexible enough to survive a number of migrations and political changes in the past. The Mbuti Pygmies are nature lovers and peaceful human beings hence they hunt only when it is necessary. The Mbuti hunt and gather food from the forest, and they trade as well for survival. From subsistence to market: a case study of the Mbuti net hunters.
Roach Cultural Anthropology 101 Professor Meredith Kiljan February 21, 2011 The Mbuti Pygmies Society In my final cultural anthropology research paper, I will explore the culture of the Mbuti people. Their language falls into a classification of the Nilo-Saharan phylum. Cross-hatched squares, perhaps representing the texture of reptilian skin, are shorthand for turtles, crocodiles or snakes. The Mbuti pygmies are foragers. Mbutis also collect more than thirty species of non-vertebrates and their products.
The next aspect of Mbuti culture to be examined is the economic organization. They often obtain iron goods, pots, wooden goods, and basketry, in exchange for meat, animal hides, and other forest goods. In the 1970s when the first research was carried out, the Mbuti in Teturi area spent several months a year in nomadic forest camps, in spite of the increasing prevalence of the monetary economy and other waves of development. Polyphonic music is only characteristic of the Mbenga and Mbuti. Although knowledge and skills of particular band members may be called on during times of need, there is no formal leader.
Hunting nets are made from the inner bark of forest vines called kusa Manniophyton fulvum , and owned by each family. The current affairs of a state conveyed by its newspapers show the overall contemporary nature of the people. The Mbuti live in the Ituri tropical rainforest of Zaire, a place of consistently warm temperatures and a place filled with dense trees, many different animals, birds and a rich plat life due to the thick canopy of trees and rain keeping the soil rich and moist, which in turn provides much plant life and insects to nourish their bodies with. In some senses the prospects for Mbuti women are less grim than those for the men. Their values, beliefs, and way of life are in transition, causing much social instability. Beyond a desire for luxury items, they require no outside materials for their survival. The provides their basic needs—food, fresh water from innumerable streams and springs, firewood, and clothing—which they supplement through trade with agriculturalists.
The Bambuti have no chiefs or any formal councils of elders; they settle their problems and disputes by general discussion. The Mbuti society seems to rely on the hunting prowess of men within their community. It is indicative of the status differential that Efe men never marry villager women. However the roads in this area are now being upgraded as part of the Trans-Africa Highway Project, which will almost certainly result in the opening of new plantations. The traders agree among themselves on a fixed price for a given amount of meat, which is generally less than the Mbuti would receive by trading the meat in the village.
The community packs up and moves to a new site. By showing how the Mbuti simple life style provides happiness and fulfillment in their culture, upon reflection of our own culture much can be learned from the Mbuti Pygmies. If the women begin to win, one of them leaves to help out the men and assumes a deep male voice to make fun of manhood. Their population range from twenty to fifty thousand and the average Mbuti adult is no more than four feet, six inches tall. As of recent, they are even given to the accumulation of outside currencies for use in their day to day lives. Bambuti is a collective name for four populations of Ituri Pygmies—the Sua Asua , Aka, Efe, and Mbuti—each of which has formed a loose economic and cultural interdependency with an agricultural group.
The three systems that I will highlight are social, economic and their political organizations. The work that women do on a net-hunt is exhausting, and women are responsible for collecting and processing the materials used in making and repairing the nets. It will then discuss the Mbuti beliefs and values, sickness and healing and lastly, social change and how it effects the tribes and their everyday life. Culture is the set of knowledge, skills, traditions, customs, unique to a human group, to a civilization. Music by Pygmies, performed by Aka Pygmies, and , performed by. Traditionally, it was made of wood or sometimes bamboo, but Turnbull also reported the use of metal drainpipes.
The villagers even refer to themselves as owners of the Mbuti. Too much rainfall, as well as , can greatly diminish the food supply. This will be followed by an increase in population density and increased competition for land. The population density in the forest including both Mbuti and cultivators, is low, averaging less than 3 persons per km². The Mbuti are divided into three primary linguistic-geographical groups—the Efe, the Aka, and the Sua—as a result of adopting the language of those villagers with whom they came into contact. The profitable meat trade began in the nineteen-fifties and intensified in the nineteen-seventies and has inspired market-oriented hunting for the Mbuti. More than 70% of the forest has probably never been cut; large areas remain uninhabited.