As the eighteenth century drew to its inevitable close, the passionate calls for social reform and a utopian, egalitarian society quieted down substantially. It was at Binfield that the sixteen-year-old Pope composed his Pastorals published 1709. The Enlightenment would see these ideas applied to every segment of life and society, with huge ramifications for citizens and rulers alike. But is nothing if not a bit ridiculous. Even if you've never heard of Pope before, you've probably heard some of his quotes, and a few of those actually come from An Essay on Criticism. Given his lofty opinions on poetry, poets and morality, Pope did not have a very high opinion of many of his contemporary poets.
Early Poems Pope's first major works are a series of four short, seasonally themed poems called the Pastorals, and they were published in an anthology in 1709. He reserved especially pointed barbs for the Church, which he reviled as intolerant, backward, and too steeped in dogma to realize that the world was leaving the institution behind. The Rape of the Lock is a narrative poem written by Alexander Pope. He's trying to elevate this minor event to something as big as an epic. The defining mark of a satirical work is its ability to induce bothlaughter and horror within the reader, with those combative emotionsforcing the audience to take an honest look at the foolishness of bothhumanity and society.
How cruel Celia's fate, who hence Our heart's devotion cannot try; Too pretty for our reverence, Too ancient for our gallantry! This method of social critique is the specialty of18th century poet Alexander Pope, who. So like many great writers Pope draws on his predecessors and contemporaries for ideas and images, but his real work is in the imaginative transformation of those sources in the construction of an original vision of humankind, whose natural sociability emerges through a particular institutional history, whose reason and passions are sometimes collaborators in the production of distinctively human virtues, who recognize their limits but nonetheless always aim to broaden the scope of what is contained by them. What made this kind of revolution in free time possible was an increasingly urban, sophisticated population coupled with the steady progress of industrialization. Granted, there had been substantial gains made in nearly all walks of life thanks to the progressive ideas of the Enlightenment. Besides the general fault, which pervades all Popes longer efforts, of want of coherent texture and consecutiveness of argument, the Essay on Criticism offers too many weak lines, obscure expressions, and monotonous rhymes. Among these, Essay on Man is perhaps the most important given that it became known throughout Europe, generating both admiration and criticism. What does Pope gain by compressing his meaning? This mechanistic view of the universe, a universe governed by a set of unchanging laws, raised the ire of the Church fathers.
It must be stated, of course, that this public entity was still a very exclusive one. Two years earlier, at a very fancy party just outside of London, the young Lord Petre had snuck up behind a young lady, Belle Fermor, and snipped off a lock of her hair literally seizing it by force without her consent. Celia, we know, is sixty-five, Yet Celia's face is seventeen; Thus winter in her breast must live, While summer in her face is seen. Key works are An Essay on Man 1734 , Epistles to Several Persons, often referred to as Moral Essays 1735 , An Epistle to Dr. Sir George Brown was indignant at being made to talk nothing but nonsense. He single-handedly elevated translation to an art-form, and demonstrated that a good poetic sensibility was necessary to pull it off with any success.
There was a general outcry following the publication of The Dunciad, and it seemed that his reputation as a satiric poet was solidified. The Iliad Comparing the Works of Fagles, Lattimore and PopeRegardless of the subject matter, a writers work always reflects something of the writer himself. It was evident that, under the new standard thus set up, the prize would be to him who should be willing to take most trouble about his style. What kind of struggles, you ask? In Europe, Voltaire and Jean-Jacques Rousseau were the torchbearers of Enlightenment literature and philosophy. But of its absolute merit as a poem, a just taste must agree with Taine Litt. He quarrelled with many writers and public figures of his day, but he was greatly devoted to his mother and maintained a close friendship with chosen friends: Arbuthnot, Gay, and Swift.
There he entertained such friends as , , Oxford, and the painter Jonathan Richardson. Thackeray, who had no toleration for similar offences when Swift was the offender, thought that the conclusion of The Dunciad shows the author to be the equal of all poets of all times; and Conington considers the poem as unquestionably a very great satire. Telling the story with all the pomp and circumstance of epic made not only the participants in the quarrel but also the society in which they lived seem ridiculous. He released his translation of The Iliad in six separate volumes via a subscription service; one volume would come out each year, kind of like a really slow magazine. He was associated with the first five in the 1713—14 , which met to write joint satires on pedantry, later to mature as Peri Bathouse; or, The Art of Sinking in Poetry 1728 and the Memoirs of Martinus Scriblerus 1741 ; and these were the men who encouraged his translation of Homer.
Pope earned some lavish pay for this project, which was wildly popular and basically cemented his reputation even in the face of some struggles to come. Morleys brother, Sir George Brown of Keddington. Pope skillfully uses the mock epic genre to satirize the triviality of his society through exaggeration, parody, and juxtaposition in rhyming couplets. In this one couplet are three expressions, short ideas, offend in arts, and love to parts, the meaning of which has to be guessed, or gathered from the context; it is not apparent on the face of the words used. He is most famous for his use of the iambic pentameter style of poetry, his translations of Homer, his satirical verse and for embracing the heroic couplet style. Here he resided till his death in 1744, employing himself in writing, in embellishing his grounds, of five acres, and in intercourse with most of the wits, and other famous men and women of his time, among whom Gay, Swift, Arbuthnot, and Lord Bolingbroke were his especial intimates. Lord Petre, in a moment of youthful frolic, had cut off a lock of hair from Miss Arabella Fermors head, a liberty which was keenly resented, and had caused a violent quarrel between the families.
Between the first and last versions of The Dunciad, Pope produced other major poems that treat philosophical, ethical, and political subjects. An example of satire in literature isAlexander Pope s The Dunciad in which he bitterly attacks poets and other writers who hefelt abused the English language. Nor is the reflection of social life and manners which the Rape offers confined to superficial forms only. Basically what Pope's saying is that we're in the middle of our life, so we can't really make sense of it, but everything is ordered in 'the Great Chain of Being,' and we just don't know how. English writers had begun to perceive that there was such an art as the art of writing; that it was not enough to put down words upon paper anyhow, provided they conveyed your meaning. Each of the societies that Gulliver encounters has a metaphorical relation to the eighteenth century in England. Condensation, terseness, neatness, finishall qualities hitherto unheard of in Englishhad to be studied.
A better denomination for the period of our literature which extends from the Restoration to the French Revolution is the classical period. He then undertook a translation of 1726. Arbuthnot, or Prologue to the Satires may be singled out as Popes most characteristic piece. In elegant strokes, Pope lays out his aesthetic principles which are not rigid rules , explains the virtues that critics must acquire, and analyzes the role of criticism in civilization. The Dunciad - at least its earlier editions - concludes that witty men you know, like Pope himself are constantly at war with the subjects of Dulness and must fight back against her. I do want to state right up front, though, that The Rape of the Lock is in the style of a mock-epic and has nothing to do with a real sexual assault, so don't be afraid to watch it.
Designed not only to correct the said edition, but to restore the true reading of Shakespeare in all the editions ever yet published. He took mundane settings and events and made them grandiose, a kind of irony that anticipated Modernism by two centuries. Working in the shadow of the Elizabethans presented creative difficulties for English writers, as no one could quite determine how to follow up after Shakespeare and Marlowe. But his religion also precluded him from a formal course of education, since Catholics were not admitted to the universities. The writers in this style are sometimes spoken of as the school of Pope.